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360 degree feedback surveys

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360 degree feedback surveys

Measures employee performance based on feedback from multiple sources, including self-appraisal, subordinate rating etc.


Abandonment rates

The number of applications begun on a company’s recruitment platform, but not finished and submitted for consideration.

Absenteeism policy

In-house policies for attendance, including planned and unplanned leave, discipline related to non-attendance, and expectations for aggregate attendance at work.

Administrative services only (ASO)

The engagement of a third-party administrative organisation to carry out specific and limited tasks for a company. The third party only carries out the task assigned and does not take on risk or responsibility for other parts of the business.

Adverse impact

This occurs where employment, promotion or recruitment practices have a discriminatory effect on people from groups who have been historically discriminated against. An “inference of adverse impact” may be cited by government where an employer unfairly exhibits these practices but has failed to capture data to monitor it.

Affirmative action

A business strategy or policy that active pursues positive discrimination to rectify historical workplace disadvantage for particular demographics. For example, this may be providing additional training and employment programs for people with disabilities, or having policies to promote more women in male-dominated industries.

Affirmative action plan (AAP)

A written document which sets out the specific actions and intended results that will be taken by a business to achieve affirmative action – the active pursuit of positive discrimination or corrective action in favour of historically disadvantaged groups in the workforce. The plan has measurable outcomes and is monitored and managed over time.


Discriminatory behaviour against employees or other stakeholders on the basis of their age. This is contrary to Australian anti-discrimination legislation.

Agent (insurance)

A staff member who sells insurance products owned and operated by the business. This is contrary to a broker, which sells insurance products on behalf of another company.

Agile organisation

A business which is able to quickly and easily adapt to the needs of customers when the market or industry changes. There are processes in place to change workflows and redeploy employees where they are needed to facilitate changes in manufacturing or provision of services. Also known as agile manufacturing.

Algorithmic accountability

The principle that an organisation collecting and using data in algorithmic processes should be responsible for the results the algorithms produce; see also algorithmic transparency

Algorithmic transparency

The principle that an organisation collecting data for use by algorithms does so in a clear, transparent manner, with purpose, manner of collection, and actions performed by the algorithm be made clear; see also algorithmic accountability.

Alternate Dispute Resolution (ADR)

A process to resolve disputes that is less formal than other methods. Parties involved in the dispute meet, with a trained mediator, to discuss the issue. The mediator can help facilitate mediation, arbitration and conciliation to reach a mutually agreed upon solution.

Annual leave

A period of paid time off or holidays, most commonly accrued at 4 working weeks per annum, (pro rata for part time employees). Annual leave is usually only accrued by full- and part-time staff (not casual employees)

Annual leave entitlements

Annual leave that has been accumulated during time in the job but which have not been used during the employee’s tenure. Usually paid out via payroll when employment ceases. Roubler’s annual leave management software handles all leave requirements and communication between, management, payroll and the employee.

Annual leave loading

An additional percentage (usually 17.5% in Australia) on top of the normal rate of pay which is paid on top of annual leave, usually written into the enterprise agreement or employment contract.


Australian law making it unlawful for a business to discriminate on the basis of “protected attributes” such as age, disability, sexual orientation or race. These protections are provided under several specific Acts, as well as under the Fair Work Act 2009; see EEO

API (Application Programming Interface)

A set of software-building protocols and tools that are the basic foundations of program and application development. Some large websites (such as Facebook) will make part of their code available publicly to allow developers to design products or services that will work within the platform (such as games playable through the Facebook interface). Roubler has an open RESTful API providing customers with the capability to integrate third party financial, POS and other operational systems with Roubler. see Our technology for more information our Roubler’s Technology platform and API’s.


An individual who submits required materials to a business for recruitment opportunities, such as a resume, CV, cover letter, expression of interest or application form.

Applicant tracking software

With an abundance of job posting sites, and an increase in people actively seeking employment in Australia, it can be difficult to pick the perfect new employee for your business from the crowd. Furthermore, managers are expected to do more with less time and resources available, so they don’t have hours to spare for recruitment and applicant assessing. If you’re in a high traffic field such as Information Technology, each job application posted could garner hundreds, or even thousands of applications. Applicant tracking software (ATS) is intended to assist with that. Applicant tracking software automate the entire process of recruitment and onboarding. They are programs designed to screen candidates applying for a certain role or position. It allows employers to better examine the applicants for an open position by using intelligent algorithms to rank potential employees. Some applicant tracking software actually pinpoint if an potential employee will be a good cultural fit for your workplace.

When implemented correctly, a good applicant tracking software will be able to streamline your staffing operation to be the most efficient, profitable and productive as possible. This software cut huge amounts of time off the process of finding a new hire. Research has shown that 94% of those who employ an applicant tracking software for their hiring purposes see positive impacts. They also see a 75% drop in time wastage during recruitment.

Roubler’s applicant tracking software carefully sifts through the resumes of every applicant to your job ad. Roubler’s algorithm will analyse the previous experience, skillset, and personal qualities of each potential employee and compare it to your current workforce and HR requirements. That way, you will only ever interview candidates who are a perfect fit for the role, and your company culture. Roubler will even help you construct and post a job ad with its recruitment tool.

Applicant tracking system (ATS)

Software that deals with the “four pillars” of managing talent: recruitment/onboarding, managing performance, training and development, and remuneration. An ATS manages and streamlines previously separate parts of the employee lifecycle to ensure consistent workflows used to manage this information.

Application form

A standard form provided to potential new hires allowing for simpler comparison between applicants. Usually collected in conjunction with a CV and/or cover letter.

Application service provider (ASP)

See cloud computing and Software as a Service (SaaS)

Appointment schedule

A diary of scheduled activities to keep track of tasks during the recruitment and/or onboarding process. This keep track of required timelines for anticipated completion, as well as a record of actual completion.


A person engaged by a business in a structured training program, under a contract called an apprenticeship, most common in traditional trades occupations.


An employment contract which combines on-the-job training in conjunction with a formal study component with a registered training organisation, such as TAFE. The apprenticeship wage is paid at a lower rate to regular employees during the period of the apprenticeship, allowing the business to invest time and resources providing training and development. The formal training is awarded a nationally-recognised certificate.

Artificial intelligence

A segment of computer science dedicated to making computers perform particular acts or skills like humans. AI is predominately driven by identifying patterns in large volumes of data fed into the programming. In some companies, AI may be used to make decisions that may be prone to human error or bias, (such as HR software that helps identify the best applicants from a pool based on responses on application forms).


The rate of loss of employees in a business over time, (through voluntary and involuntary cessation of employment), whose positions are not refilled.

Award interpretation

Award interpretation is essentially the process of determining the minimal legal pay rates and conditions for your employees, as outlined by Fair Work Australia. The current modern awards system came into effect on January 1st 2010.  Modern awards operate on an industry and occupation level in order to provide a safety net for employment conditions. Modern awards provide entitlements including pay rate, hours of work, breaks, penalty rates, rosters and overtime. Australia has a very complicated awards system, with 122 different awards covering varying industries. For example, if you work in retail, you are covered under the General Retail Industry Award. If you write for a newspaper, you’re covered under the Journalists Published Media Award. If you aren’t sure of your award, Fair Work Australia operates an ‘award-finder’ tool so that you can check your award entitlements.

The only time an employee isn’t covered under an award is when the business they work for is operating under a registered agreement. A registered agreement is a document outlining employment conditions that must be signed by both employer and employer. These agreements must be registered with, and approved by, Fair Work Australia.

Basics of award interpretation across all industries include:

Base wage: the legal minimum remuneration that employees receive for their work within ordinary hours.
Penalties and overtime: the higher rates of pay awarded to employees for working outside ordinary hours. This includes weekends, public holidays, or late nights.
Allowances: compensation to employees for costs incurred due to their job. This often includes a meal allowance, uniform allowance, accommodation allowance and more.

Mistakes in award interpretation are all too common in Australia due to their intricate structure. Fines of up to $51,000 apply for award non-compliance, as well as huge backpay. Roubler provides complete award interpretation for all modern awards, complete with a fully integrated payroll system. Let Roubler handle your award interpretation, so you can avoid large fines and focus on your core business goals.


Back pay

The payment of monies owed to an employee for work activities not paid during the relevant pay cycle, (e.g. overtime accrued but not paid). These may be subject to additional tax requirements.

Background screening / pre-employment screening

The series of steps taken by an employer to verify the credentials of an applicant. This can include criminal history checks, drug testing, skills or qualification checks, employment references, or Blue Card/working with children checks.

Balanced scorecard

A planning and management tool that measures internal business processes, financial performance, customer knowledge, and growth and learning. It compares stated goals against actual performance, linking the business activities with the broader mission statement and goals. The balanced scorecard was developed by Dr David Norton and Dr Robert Kaplan in the 1990s and has had several updates in the time since.

Bargaining representative

Traditionally the role of a trade union, bargaining representatives negotiate the terms of a proposed Enterprise Bargaining Agreements (EBA). The Fair Work Act 2009 establishes who can act in this role, (for both the employer and employee sides), including where individuals can appoint themselves the role if they wish to be personally involved in negotiations. All parties are required to act in the best interests of employees, and proposed agreements are sent to a vote by employees who will be affected.

Base pay

Employee wages paid for all regular hours worked, not including additional hours worked at higher rates of pay. The Fair Work Act 2009 indicates the base rate of pay cannot include additional loadings, monetary allowances (e.g. dinner allowance), overtime or penalty rates, incentive-based bonuses, or other separately identifiable amounts paid to the employee.

Base rate

The wage paid to employees for each hour worked, as outlined in an enterprise agreement or employment contract. Workers not covered by an EA or a separate award must be paid the minimum wage determined by the National Minimum Wage Order, reviewed by the Fair Work Commission annually. See our free wage calculator.

Base remuneration

Put simply, the base rate multiplied by the number of work hours required in an employee’s employment contract. This is the advertised annual amount for the position, not taking into account additional payments such as bonuses, overtime, or penalty rates.

Basic competencies

The base standard of required skills for a particular position. Generally, these are outlined specifically in recruitment advertisements and matched against applicant resumes. Applicants who do not meet basic competencies are very unlikely to be suitable for a position or would require significant reskilling before commencing work.

Behavioural competency

The ability of a potential employee to exhibit particular behavioural traits in the workplace. These are often determined in a behavioural-based interview.

Behavioural risk management

A management process which identifies behavioural problems in the workplace (either from individual employees or collectively, such as a poor attendance culture). The employer creates policies and processes to deal with, and ideally eliminate, these issues.

Behavioural-based interview

An interviewing style which asks candidates to outline specific examples from previous jobs where certain skills or competencies were used or demonstrated.

Behaviourally Anchored Rating Scale (BARS)

Rather than generic employee appraisals which could be used to judge any role in a business, the BARS methods identifies and rates skills and competencies specific to each individual role. Managers and employees may both evaluate (and compare) ratings of an individual’s scores on each competency for the purpose of identifying training and development opportunities.

Benchmark job

In a similar manner to benchmarking for a business, a benchmark job is a common role in the workforce for which salary and other data are readily available. Benchmark jobs can be used by a business to compare current and potential roles within the company.


A method of comparing change initiatives proposed by the business against other within the industry or field. These are measurable, specific, predetermined goals (such as customer satisfaction, corporate social responsibility, mentoring programmes) and results are compared to other businesses already implementing the measures.


Compensation isn’t the only incentive to recruiting retaining the best people. Benefits include any other perks that incentivise pushing just that bit harder to achieve results, helps build a sense of team and boosts happiness in the workplace. This might include an espresso machine in the tea room, a staff-only gym, discounts on business goods, or regular morning tea provided by the business. Even small perks can go a long way as a motivator. The benefits build on monetary rewards to market your company as an attractive employer.

Benefits administration

Traditionally a role of the human resources department, this is the creation and administration of benefits packages for staff, either through internal methods (e.g. discounts on company services or goods) or external, such as discounted private health insurance or gym/fitness plans. Liaising with external suppliers or providers can be very time intensive, and businesses may subsidise the discounts, requiring involvement from the finance department.

Benefits package

Compensatory payments to employees additional to regular salaries or wages. These might include bonuses, incentive payments for excellent performance, additional superannuation payments, or extras such as private health insurance.

Bereavement leave

A condition built into an employment contract or enterprise agreement allowing time off (usually paid) following the death of a close relative.

Best practice

Processes, workflows and procedures widely accepted to achieve positive results or outcomes. This is commonly seen in areas like technology, agriculture, e-commerce security, or environmental management of waste by-products produced by a business.

Best practice policy

The formalisation of best practice concepts into a company’s workflows or business practice.

Big Data

The analysis of significant volumes of data collected by a business. This is particularly data associated with people and their consumer behaviours. Loyalty cards are a major source of this data for many retailers. This helps the business design marketing and strategy around actual behaviour, rather than what people say they do, (as might be collected in a survey).

Blended workforce

A company team made up of a mix of part-time, full-time and casual employees, as well as third-party contractors and employees on fixed, temporary contracts.

Blind engagement

The automation of social media engagement by a company, rather than manual management. With large volumes of social media traffic for some businesses, it has become popular to use software to like, follow-back, or even thank individuals who interact with the business. This can have unintended consequences such as following malicious or bot accounts, and can be a poor look for public relations.


A short article written for web, either on a dedicated blogging platform or on a business website. Blogs are very useful to highlight what a company is doing or boost a company’s visibility through search engines via search engine optimisation (SEO); see also search engine optimisation. See Roubler’s Blog for HR information and news.


Extra payments made to an employee for achieving particular performance goals or indicators, either individually or as a team. Paid in addition to the base remuneration.

Brain drain

Highly educated and/or skilled labour trained in Australia, leaving to work in another country; see also maternal brain drain.


Using marketing to differentiate a business or the goods/services it provides by making it instantly familiar to customers. This may be done through particular sounds, colours, functions, or logos. Successful branding means the business becomes the standard for the industry in which they are competing, (e.g. “Just Google it”).


Using extremely wide salary or wage increments, rather than smaller ones. For example, where one pay grade to another may have an increase of 15%, broadbanding may make this jump 100%. This incentivises growth and development, streamlines the hierarchical structures, and encourages internal mobility rather than moving to another business.


Someone who acts as an agent for a third-party company to sell their goods or services. For example, a mortgage broker sells mortgage products on behalf of other banks and financial institutions rather than lending money itself.


According to Fair Work Australia, bullying is repeated, unreasonable acts towards another worker or group of workers, and where these actions create a risk to health and safety. This includes both physical and mental health. Employers have a duty of care to prevent and take action on bullying.


Where a position filled by a long-term staff member is to be made redundant, they are given the option to take another role they are qualified to do that is currently held by another employee with less seniority.

Business continuity planning

The steps taken by management to ensure the business is equipped to cope with the future threats and opportunities (especially in terms of having adequately trained senior staff). This requires creating strategies that will result in minimal disruption or interruption to the operations of the business.

Business process outsourcing (BPO)

The management of a company function by a third-party, (such as parts of the supply chain, SaaS, or finance, payroll and accounting). Roubler provides a payroll BPO solution through the fully managed outsourced payroll service. Please visit our outsourced payroll solutions page

Buzz marketing

A marketing technique that attempts to harness viral trends online to create a ‘buzz’ around their good or service. This might involve approaching social media influencers to showcase or review a product, or drip-feeding product teasers in internet marketing. This needs to be carefully managed to ensure the forum used to advertise the product is very much in line with the demographic and style of the platform being used.

BYOD (bring your own device)

The requirement or offer to employees to use their own technology devices (such as laptops, phones or tablet) rather than company-provided IT. It is important for a business to have policies in place to deal with staff-owned devices being used in the workplace, but it can provide a good solution for employees who may have their own setup.


Cafeteria plan

A scheme run by the employer to offer employees a range of employment benefits. Staff can piece together which benefits are best suited to their own personal circumstances, (such as fitness plans, private health or life insurance, dental plans, etc.).

Candidate experience

The experience of job applicants during the recruitment process. This is particularly important in terms of analysing abandonment rates (i.e. starting an application but leaving it incomplete), and in measuring the marketing of the company as an attractive employer.

Candidate relationship marketing (CRM)

Software of other applications that aid recruitment staff in communicating with a large applicant or talent pool. It organises and automates a portion of communications and is similar to customer relationship marketing, which performs similar tasks with customers. A talent pool or candidate CRM database is used to centralise the candidate talent pool activities

Capability assessment tools

Provides insight into individual capabilities to help inform position descriptions, learning and development activities etc.

Captitated pricing

A model used in the relationship between a third-party provider and a business where the company pays the provider (usually health care professionals) a set amount per staff member, whether the services are used or not. This can be risky for the company in that staff may underutilise a service that has been paid for, but can be beneficial in that it incentivises the provider to provide the most cost-efficient treatment.

Career path

This may specific to individual employees or the workforce more generally, and sets out the opportunities for progression and career development within the business.


A third-party provider which is a vendor for employee benefits package items, (such as health care or insurance). The business may buy services direct from the vendor or through a third-party broker.


Removing coverage for one element of an employee benefit provider to use a different vendor. For example, removing dental benefits from a health insurance scheme to provide them through a different company.

Casual employee

A staff member employed on a shift-by-shift basis with the possibility to increase or decrease hours and shifts work depending on the needs of the business. Casual staff do not accrue annual or sick leave, and are generally paid at a higher hourly wage.

Change management

The process of managing employees through a change programme in the workplace. This includes monitoring impacts on output, morale, and other stakeholders. This can be done continuously or on a periodic basis such as weekly, monthly, or annually.

Change programme

A significant shift in a business’ processes, culture, or other initiative to another way of working. These programmes are formalised and incorporate pre-determined control mechanisms to minimise impact on output, initiation with the workforce, and monitoring and reporting of change during and following the programme. Incremental changes or events are decided by management and carefully managed throughout the programme.

Chatbots (bots)

Software that simulates human conversation with a person online. These can be used to interact with employees or customers and may perform tasks such as allowing staff to ask questions in natural language, rather than using search strings or key words.

Chief Executive Officer (CEO)

The highest ranked officer within a registered corporate entity, such as a company or non-profit organisation. Usually reports to a board of directors.

Chief Information Officer (CIO)

Reports to the CEO; usually tasked with managing information flows within an organisation, notably data collection, storage and retention, ICT policy and strategy, database management and other information-related systems and policies.

Chief Technical Officer

An executive-level position with a registered corporate entity, responsible for technical development, research and development, engineering or other technical divisions within the company. The role incorporates procurement, strategy and policy responsibilities.


See Chief Information Officer

Climate Surveys

Measures employee attitudes to working at the organisation and engagement.

Cloud based HR Software

Cloud-based HR software refers to on-demand networks, services, systems and applications accessible through the internet. Essentially, cloud-based HR software allows you to run HR applications from anywhere on an internet-connected device, as opposed to operating data out of one hard drive in your office. Cloud based HR software is an invaluable tool for business management as it can streamline a number of tasks into one program or application. These tasks include performance tracking, scheduling, payroll, and time and attendance. Cloud software means that your data is stored in secure servers in large data centres, managed by IT professionals 24/7. Data is then encrypted for transmission between the data centre and your internet-connected device, so that its completely secure.

There are many benefits to installing cloud based HR software in your workplace. In comparison to older HR software, cloud based programs offer far more assistance to the smooth running of the workplace. You will experience a reduction in IT costs and have better program functionality. Outdated HR software required manual updates for its software, whilst cloud based software does not. Your provider runs all system updates and security checks to ensure that your business is always operating on the optimal software. Your data can easily be recovered in emergency situations. There will be increased ability to share data and integrate other programs. Plus, you have the ability to access your data anytime, anywhere.

Roubler is a cloud based software that integrates all aspects of HR into one easy to use system. With Roubler’s cloud-based workforce management software, you can manage all HR systems from your mobile device. Recruit and onboard a new employee, create a roster, approve time and attendance data, and manage payroll from anywhere, anytime via Roubler’s app. It’s never been easier to manage your entire workforce’s HR needs.

Cloud computing

Similar to SaaS, cloud computing is an umbrella term for software services provided online. This can include IaaS (Infrastructure as a Service), PaaS (Platform as a Service) and SaaS (Software as a Service). IaaS refers to storage services which provide an off-location file storage and processing. PaaS incorporates storage and processing facilities, but also the ability to develop and manage applications (such as app development); see also Software as a Service.


An arrangement whereby two organisation have some legal responsibility or oversight for the same employee. This may be in the case of a staffing firm or employment services provider subsidising part of the wages of employee while they perform work for a company. This is common with some welfare-based employment providers in Australia, particularly with individuals on certain types of pensions or welfare payments.


Different from training in that coaching is usually targeting a more specific set of skills or tasks. This may be as part of performance management or upskilling for staff. This may be done by in-house trainers, or third-party coaches. Feedback on performance and sometimes assessment is included in coaching.

Code of conduct

A document produced by an employer establishing the broad expectations of employee behaviour, usually reflecting the values and goals of the business. These codes form part of the employment contract and are legally enforceable by the employer. These can broadly cover the whole workforce of a business or be specific to certain roles or positions.

Code of ethics

While the code of conduct outlines expected behaviours, the code of ethics underpins these expectations by outlining the fundamental “right and wrong” practice of the business, management and staff. These are high-level principles and can be expected to guide decision-making by the company.

Code of practice

Agreed upon principles within an industry relating to practices, technical requirements, corporate responsibilities or other activities that are designed to regulate and uphold the standard of the profession. These may be established by an industry body or in consultation with government and are a means of self-regulation. Examples of these include the Hippocratic Oath for medical professionals (i.e. “do no harm”) or the “scanning code of practice” implemented by many large Australian retailers.

Cognitive ability testing

A process used during the recruitment and applicant assessment process to gauge applicants’ logic and learning competencies.

Cognitive computing

Also known as CALO (Cognitive Assistant that Learns and Organises). Closely linked with artificial intelligence concepts, cognitive computing is software that mimics human decision-making. In business, this refers to applications which can use data collection and analysis of patterns, and processing natural language to substitute manual analysis. This can be used in pre-assessment of applicants by ‘reading’ their applications to identify talent with a high potential or synchrony with the business.

Collective bargaining

The participation of one or more trade unions in negotiating an enterprise agreement.

Commission, sales

Additional payment made to an employee for achieving single specific sales goals. This differs from a bonus in that it is directly tied to a single sales event (e.g. a set amount paid for every unit sold, as opposed to a set amount paid for achieving a cumulative target).


Compensation is a better descriptor for the return on the effort employees will receive. This encourages thinking about the whole financial package an individual will receive. This is as opposed to the base salary or wage, which may only indicate part of the potential earnings. Compensation may come in the form of bonuses, share offerings, additional superannuation or even equity in the business.

Compensatory time-off plan (also, “time off in lieu”)

The concept of time off in lieu (TOIL) is an alternative to paying overtime for work done in addition to regular hours. For example, a worker contracted to do 8 hours in a day may be required to work an extra 3 hours. Rather than paying overtime rates, the business may offer the employee to have 3 hours off on another day while still getting paid for the full day. The Australian award does not prescribe rules for TOIL, however many enterprise agreements or employment contracts may provide a guidance clause.

Competency modelling

A framework which determines the competencies and aptitudes needed for an employee to be successful in, and for, the company. These models make job expectations clear to applicants and employees, synchronise the company goals and employee actions and output, and deploy the right team in the right places for maximum efficiency.

Competency-based pay

An employee’s salary is determined by their skills or competencies, rather than at a universal rate. This may persuade more skilled applicants to apply, and incentivise upskilling within the workforce.

Competency-based training

Training or development opportunities for employees which result in a formal certification, based on the ability to perform a task with a set level of competency, (e.g. training to use fire extinguishers, first aid certification, forklift licensing).

Competitive advantage

In human resources, this is the “x factor” that make the company employees (individually and as a team) unrivalled by other firms. For example, while another business may be producing the same product or delivering the same service, the competitive advantage may come from the unique culture or morale that has been built within the business to make your company an industry leader.


Generally relates to the obligation of employees to business policies, and of the business to laws, regulations and codes of practice.

Conditions of employment

These are usually the benefits and responsibilities within a given position, specifically related to items like wage rate, work hours, annual and sick leave allowance, superannuation payments, penalty rates, grievance and discipline policies and other procedural conditions of employment.

Confidentiality agreement

A legally binding document that prevents the employee discussing commercial-in-confidence or other sensitive proprietary information with anyone else. This may be defined as people external to the firm, but may also include not disclosing information to other employees, (such as in the case of a workers compensation settlement or disciplinary action).


The ability for non-technical people to customise, configure, or change SaaS applications to suit the needs of a business. This might be creating custom fields or data entry points, or change the way users, such as employees, view and use the application.

Constructive dismissal

Where an employee engineers a situation that leaves an employee feeling as if they have no choice but to resign.


A person external the business, usually engaged by large firms, who provides professional advice on particular matters for a fee. This may be to provide guidance on a particular branch of the company, suggestions for manufacturing or marketing processes, or even mentoring on the business direction as a whole.

Contingency recruiting

Contingent recruitment sees a third-party recruiter work on behalf of a company or individual applicants seeking work. Their fee is contingent, or reliant, on successfully placing candidates in roles. Their services are normally engaged for temporary workforces.

Contingent staff

Employees placed by contingent recruiters in a non-permanent role that temporarily boost a company’s workforce. This may be for special events, seasonal work, or any other reason that requires temporary staff.

Contract for service

An agreement with an individual worker or external company to provide services on a specific task, (e.g. an electrician, delivery driver).

Contract of service

Alternative term for employment agreement.

Conversion rate

A term used to describe the rate at which a visitor to a company website (particularly in e-commerce) converts from simply viewing the website to taking an action that benefits the business, such as making a purchase, signing up to a newsletter, or asking for a quote. Conversion rates can be increased through the use of search engine optimisation (SEO) which uses keywords on the website to boost the company’s ranking on search engines. This is cheaper and easier than expensive paid search campaigns.

Core competencies

The fundamental skills and qualifications required for an employee to successfully complete a role. This also relates to the critical strengths of the business that provide differentiation from others in the industry. The core competencies of the business emerge from those of the workforce.

Cost-benefit analysis

Analysing what a product or program will cost in term of finances and dedicated resources, compared to the benefit it brings in for the company.


The financial and resource costs to employ new hires. This can include advertising costs, onboarding, and training processes. Roubler’s ATS and customisable onboarding software significant reduces the cost per hire.


The use of a large, voluntary community (such as social media) to generate ideas, new products or other contributions, as opposed to using tradition means. For example, allowing members of the public to name a new product.

Curriculum vitae

The CV, similar to a resume, is supplied by job applicants detailing their expertise, experience, skills and other relevant information to be assessed by the recruitment team. The CV is typically longer than a resume and includes educational history, significant career achievements, and any other pertinent information for the position. This is often used in more professional, white collar industries.


Data breach

An instance where sensitive commercial data (including customer or third-party data) has been accessed, viewed or used by an organisation or individual without the authority or permission to do so.

Deep learning

A subfield of machine learning which uses artificial intelligence to mimic the human brain in identifying and analysing patterns in data. It allows computers to ‘learn’ in the same way as a human would, taking corrective action based on new information.

Deferred compensation

An arrangement which allows an employee to work, but put off receiving payment for the work until a date in the future. This is usually done for tax concessions, (such as moving a bonus payment to the following tax year).

Defined benefit plan

A superannuation scheme in which the employer pays a set amount at the end of an employee’s tenure, based on their age, length of service, and average salary during work. This is distinct from an accumulation plan which provides a retirement payout based on investments (superannuation contributions) and investment returns.

Defined contribution

A retirement pension scheme that specifically sets out the contributions amounts, typically based on a percentage of remuneration. The payout on retirement is on an accumulation measure, where returns are based on amount invested and accrued investment returns.


The removal or change of legislation which restricts trade, (commonly used in relation to industries with little competition or for import/export restrictions).

Developmental counselling

An employee management method which sees managers or senior staff counselling staff under them to address behavioural or output issues, and identify strengths and weaknesses to create development opportunities. This is not a disciplinary action, but one in which the employee and management work together to improve performance.

Direct marketing

A marketing method where the company directly approaches customers through phone calls, catalogues, email newsletters or coupons/vouchers. The best direct marketing will have a database of customers able to be segmented by demographic, to achieve best value for money spent on advertising. Big data is making this a more efficient and streamlined process for many larger companies.


A continuing condition that affects the ability for an employee to complete everyday activities. The Disability Services Act defines this as meaning something which is permanent or likely to be permanent, may be of a chronic or episodic nature, is attributed to an intellectual, psychiatric or physical impairment, and is likely to need ongoing support services.

Disability income insurance

A form of income protection insurance which pays all or part of the salary of an employee with a disability until their retirement.

Disciplinary procedure

A set process used by management or a business to deal with breaches of employment contracts or enterprise agreements. This provides clear guidance for managers, protection for the business, and clarity for employees.


Workplace policies or practices that disadvantage or deny opportunities to people with “protected attributes” under Australia anti-discrimination legislation, (including, but not limited to, on the basis of race, sexual orientation, or gender).

Disease management

A focussed and iterative process to deal with disease or illness over time. This can substantially reduce healthcare, compensation and recovery costs long-term.

Distance learning

An education delivery method which allows individuals to access materials and submit assessment online or other asynchronous ways, rather than face-to-face delivery.

Distributive bargaining

Bargaining between two parties between the allocations of resources. This could be between work sites or department.


The mix of cultural and ethnic backgrounds, beliefs, values, behaviours and other characteristics throughout the workforce.

Diversity training

Specialised training used to increase awareness and sensitivity around working in a diverse team. This helps promote an inclusive work culture and boosts morale and happiness in the workforce.

Domestic HRM

The management of employees or representatives within only one national boundary.

Dual labour markets

The segmentation of the workforce into primary and secondary sectors. The primary sector is the core workforce, most likely to progress and develop themselves and the business. The secondary sector is usually lower skilled, lower paid, and less likely to move up the ranks of the business.

Due diligence

The close investigation of the details of a merger, acquisition or other significant contractual arrangement to ensure risk and potential benefits are accurately gauged.



E-learning is an online training delivery method whereby education materials are delivered online, often through a company portal which tracks completion and progress. These can be in conjunction with in-person training through a blended approach and are very cost efficient.


Cloud-based software or SaaS which handles recruitment and onboarding tasks such as collecting business intelligence data, identifying the best talent from the applicant pool through automation, and tracking applicants.

Early Return to Work program (also, graduated return to work)

Allowing an employee to return to work after a period of time off for injury or illness, changing their work duties or deployment to until the injury or illness heals. Work gradually returns to normal duties over time.

Emotional intelligence

A personal ability to sense, analyse and act upon ones own emotions, and the emotions of others.


A person under a contract to provide work to a business in return for wages or salary. Employees are differentiated from other workers such as contractors in that the business has the legal right to dictate the conditions, hours and manner of work performed.

Employee advocacy/employer advocacy

A corporate branding strategy which asks employees to promote the business, particularly in online channels such as social media.

Employee assessments

An aptitude test, commonly online, which asks job applicants to complete a test with the purpose of identifying capabilities, skills and strengths. This can help managers in recruitment decisions, as well as deploying the right staff to the right areas during onboarding and the employee lifecycle.

Employee assistance program (EAP)

A company-funded program which provides free, confidential, professional counselling services for both work and non-work-related issues. These can be problems caused by emotional and psychological stress, divorce or separation, work pressure, financial hurdles or any other form of issue causing work and morale to suffer. The money spent on EAP services can pay dividends of triple or more on lost time prevented.

Employee engagement program

A program or initiative which encourages employees to fully invest themselves in business activities, engage positively with programs or policies and works with a genuine desire to benefit the business, their teammates and themselves.

Employee exit survey

Provides insight into employee departure experiences from the organisation

Employee expense management

In certain cases, employees can claim repayment for expenses incurred by their employment. To claim an expense, there are generally a few requirements. Firstly, the employee has to have paid for the expense themselves. They also need to have documentation, such as a receipt, to prove it. Finally, the expense has to be directly related to their employment. Employees can claim various different expenses based on the award that they’re covered by, including:

  • Vehicle and travelling costs including flights and accommodation
  • Clothing, dry-cleaning and laundry costs
  • Donations and gifts
  • Home office requirements
  • Equipment and tools
  • Required education costs
  • Computers, printers, scanners and other devices
  • Software required to download
  • The portion of your phone bill used for work calls
  • The portion of your internet used for work

For example, if you had to purchase a new truck to make deliveries for your employer, you may be entitled to monthly payments to compensate. Employee expenses vary by industry, but the chances are that your business still needs to approve payment of at least a few employee expenses. You will also want to keep detailed records of these expense claims for audits or tax purposes.

The best way to handle employee expense reimbursement is to choose a HR software that features expense management tools. Outdated paper systems of expense management are clunky and timewasting, and are susceptible to handling errors. Roubler features an integrated expense management tool. Employees simply submit their claim on the app, cutting out processing errors and double handling. The manager is then sent a notification of the claim, and they review and approve in minutes online. For example, if you’re a property valuer, you can claim back the amount you spent on petrol driving to the properties you need to inspect. Using Roubler, you simply upload the expense amount and attach the proof (a receipt from the gas station and images of your kilometres driven). A manager can see and approve the expense in real time – it’s that simple.

Employee management software

Employee management software refers to programs, and applications, designed to reduce the time and money you spend on managing your staff, rosters, and pay. Essentially, it will manage all HR and workplace administration. Employee management software comes in many different shapes and sizes. The best employee management software will be able to streamline the entire employee lifecycle – from creating job ads, assessing candidates, creating rosters, calculating time and attendance, and payroll.

There are many benefits to implementing an employee management software in your workplace. Most employee management software allows managers to track the performance of employees with tangible metrics and data at any moment in real time. This makes it easier to conduct performance reviews and helps to ensure that employees are producing high quality work at all times. This kind of software is also known to better engage employees in the workplace. When implemented correctly, employee management software helps to build better workplace relationships. It facilitates communication on a regular basis in a low-stress environment, which leads to better workplace productivity. Using the tools presented by employee management software, such as the onboarding tool, employers can set clearer, more transparent expectations for employees. When staff are better briefed on the company goals, there is a higher chance they will strive to achieve them.

Roubler is the future of employee management software. The Australian based software is the only of its kind overhauling the entire employment lifecycle. Recruiting, onboarding, rostering, time & attendance, and payroll are all serviced by the software. This seamlessly integrated, end-to-end service cuts hours off administration duties, saving your business both time and money. All of Roubler’s features are integrated into one seamless, cloud based employee management system. Access your rosters and T&A from anywhere, at any time. It has never been so easy to manage, engage and motivate employees.


Employee onboarding software

Employees are the most powerful tool that your business has. That means that the process of onboarding them into your workplace is crucial to the success of your business, as well as crucial to the retention of employees. Onboarding refers to the procedure of accustoming new staff members to the social and professional culture of the workplace. This is when they’ll learn the attitudes, expectations and standards of the environment. The more effective the onboarding process, the more effective the new employee will be at achieving company goals. Employee onboarding software is a way to ensure the induction of each employee is seamless. Employee onboarding software are programs and applications that automate and streamline the process of inducting a new employee.

When a new employee starts in your workplace, you will both be keen to get straight into things. Time spent filling out paperwork in these vital first hours is time wasted! All bank, superannuation, payroll and benefit information is entered into the software by the employee before they commence work. Intelligent onboarding software should actually be able to transfer employee details straight from the resume into the system. Roubler’s employee onboarding software eliminates the need for manual data entry, reducing time wasted as well as administration costs.

Roubler allows you to customise an induction for your new employee so that they’re up to speed by their first shift. You can load induction materials into the system, such as safety requirements, regulations, office procedures, and more. Because employees get their own login to the Roubler system, they can access all these materials prior to commencing their first shift. You can even craft and send employment offers within the program. Not only with this cut hours – and dollars – off your onboarding process, but employees will commence their new position feeling much more confident about their role, and the company.

Employee onboarding surveys

Provides insight into initial employee experience during the recruitment, selection and onboarding process.

Employee recruitment software

Hiring an employee isn’t an easy process. Selecting the right employee, and onboarding them into your workplace requires a great amount of time, resources, and money. Hence, you need every new hire to the perfect fit. Recruitment is the first step in the process of finding that perfect employee who will get the job done well. However, in an increasingly time poor workforce, it can be difficult to find the time to read the hundreds, or even thousands, of resumes submitted. That’s where recruitment software can be a huge help to your workforce. Employee recruitment software ensures you have access to the very best pool of potential candidates, and finds you the very best hire for your company every time, without spending hours reading applications.

Roubler will help you generate a custom job advertisement that reflects both the role you’re trying to fill, as well as your company’s values and culture. Then, our system will post your job ad across several job sites so that you can access the best possible pool of potential employees for the role.

Roubler evaluates, shortlists and grades applicants based on your specific workplace and HR needs. You can link Roubler directly to your job ad or company careers page, and have all applications directed into the one program. Roubler will then examine each application and analyse the skills, experience and personality traits of each candidate against your criteria. Find the perfect hire every time.

However, it’s more than just an applicant tracking system. Roubler’s intelligent machine learning algorithm will keep collecting data during the employment cycle to determine what employee attributes work the best for your business, and which don’t. For future hires, Roubler will give each candidate a suitability percentage. So, you only need to focus on the top 10% of applicants. Never waste time again sifting through email applications.

Employee relations

Actively building relationships between the business and employees. This is done through regular, open communication, clear procedures to deal with disputes and problems, and encouraging employees to be active in helping grow the business.

Employee retention

Business strategies and policies that encourage employees to stay within the business, rather than looking for alternative employment.

Employee scheduling software

As trading hours extend in many industries, and staff are employed in more than one job, rostering can become quite the challenge. If you’re operating more than one site within your business, this only adds to the complexity of crafting the perfect roster. Scheduling, or rostering software is designed to address such problems. Scheduling software refers to platforms designed to streamline the rostering and scheduling process. Scheduling software can auto-create a roster for your business, taking into account the unavailability of your staff, and your wage costs. Some intelligent scheduling software can even take into account the efficiencies of your staff to create a roster that will encourage maximum productivity.

Rostering software is a win for employees and managers alike. When both employers and staff can access a rostering software, it is much easier to communicate shifts and availability. By logging into a scheduling software, employees can submit the days the can, and can’t work, for the coming weeks or months. The software will then take this into account when generating a roster. Employers can access this data as well. Employees are then sent a notification that a new roster is available, and can check it any time they wish. Never have staff forget a shift.

Roubler’s scheduling platform is the smarter way to roster staff for the best levels of engagement. With an inbuilt costing function, your business will have on-demand and precise labour forecasts 24/7. You simply drag and drop staff into your roster with the swipe of your screen, on any device any time. Employees will always know when their next shift is rostered, and if someone can’t complete a shift, schedule another staff member in minutes. Roubler also caters for multi-site scheduling for franchise owners or companies that work over several sites. Roubler will ensure you are always allocating the resources to the areas of highest demand, making the most of every cent.

Employee self service

Employee self-service (ESS) refers to online applications and programs that provide employees a login to access their own personal details and payroll records. Employee self-service applications allow staff members to update their own contact and payroll details, as opposed to hiring an administrator to enter these details for all employees across the company. Employee self-service can be implemented as a measure to save time and money in the administration department.

Functions that can be handled by employee self-service include:

Paperwork: Printing out, filling out, and entering in details from paperwork is incredibly tedious and time-consuming. It also requires a staff member to be tasked specifically uploading signed paperwork to the system – a use of company resources that could be better engaged elsewhere. Employee self-service completely eliminates this. Paperwork is simply uploaded to the system, and each employee just needs to download, read, sign, and re upload to the system. It’s that simple.
Personal details: Employee self service allows each employee to enter their own personal details. This is an easy way to decrease the chance of data entry errors. A small error in birth date could result in payroll errors and forced backpay. Avoid the risk with ESS.
Pay details: ESS allows employees to enter their own Tax File Number, Superannuation Fund, and preffered bank account details for pay. With ESS you can rest assured that each of these details is correct.
Timesheets: Have employees commit their own hours, and approve them before pay.

When employees enter these details themselves, it drastically reduces the likelihood of double handling and data entry errors. Plus, if any of their details change during their time of employment, staff don’t need to pester management, they can simply update their address/bank account themselves.

Roubler’s integrated employee self-service function allows staff members to manage all aspects of their personal HR. Employees can access, change and manage their payroll and bank account details, manage their timesheets, and submit their own leave and expense requests. All of these changes operate in real-time, so an employee can be paid into the right account just minutes after updating it. Eliminate data entry errors and reduce the cost of payroll processing.

Employer brand

The ‘branding’ of a company isn’t just about public relations or successful marketing to customers. It is also about pitching the business as a great place to work. Appealing to the best-of-the-best people to see your company as the place to be is not an easy task, and is definitely not just about remuneration or bonuses. Building a strong reputation as an employer comes from cultivating a positive culture, fostering engaged and enthusiastic employees, and demonstrating your business sees the workforce as more than the sum of its parts. All outward facing parts of the business (the website, social media, recruitment materials, etc.) should clearly and coherently advertise this message.

Employer value proposition

Similar to the ‘unique value proposition’ concept applied to the benefits of a product, the EVP is the combinations of wages/salaries, benefits and other workplace perks that highlight the company as a desirable place to work. A solid EVP can attract and retain the best talent and act as a good corporate branding strategy for the outward facing parts of the business.

Employment at will

The concept that an employer can terminate the tenure of any employee for any reason without having to establish ‘just cause’. The concept does not exist in Australian law, with employers required to give notice periods (in most cases) and legitimate reasons codified in legislation for terminating employment.


Giving staff the ability to make decisions, participate in policy adjustment and change programme development, and providing the adequate resources to allow employees to complete the task most efficiently and effectively.

Enterprise compensation management

Computer-assisted processes of onboarding, human resources management and industry analysis in regards to employee compensation. This is common in businesses operating across multiple sites in different geographic regions.

Enterprise resource planning (ERP)

Business management software, generally involving a suite of integrated applications, that manages a range of data sets across the company. This can include sales data, accounting and human resource functions, corporate governance analysis and marketing information. This is often locally installed on company IT systems – as such, SaaS and cloud based applications are gaining more popularity.

Equal Employment Opportunity

Closely aligned with anti-discrimination principles, EEO policies give the equal right and opportunity for all people to be considered for work and promotions regardless of their race, religion, sexual orientation or gender, disability status, or any other protected attributes under the legislation.

Equity theory

A concept that says employees naturally compare their own work performance (and bonuses and rewards) to that of those around them to judge whether they are being treated fairly by management and the business.

Executive coaching

A mentoring program which sees employees paired with executive coaches or mentors to achieve skills development, upskilling and future leadership training. These are often formal arrangements in larger companies with set meetings and expected outcomes.

Executive compensation

Salary packages designed for executive-level staff, which includes salary, superannuation, bonuses, stock or equity options and other benefits.

Executive search

The use of a talent agency to attract and recruit executive-level staff, or other high-level management positions.

Exit interview

An interview with employees as they are leaving the company, usually conducted by a combination of management and HR personnel. This is used to document and understand reasons why someone is leaving the business to identify trends or problem areas leading to attrition.


A person who is sent abroad on a long-term assignment or job.


An employee or representative that is sent to work and temporarily reside in a foreign country.


Factor comparison

A systematic and quantitative method of comparing and ranking jobs based on a series of scored factors. This could include physical or mental effort, qualifications or competencies required, management responsibilities or working conditions, for example.

Flexible work arrangements

The ability for employees to negotiate altered work hours depending on personal circumstances. This can include moving work hours forward or back, working from home or another location, flex time or job sharing. This can be a good way to retain staff and attract talent.

Forced ranking

A controversial management tool which divides employees into two groups, based on the 80/20 rule – the belief that the top 20 per cent of workers do 80 per cent of the work. In this system, this top 20 per cent is rewarded and the bottom 10 per cent are terminated.

Freedom of association

The protection of workers to join a union and participate in collective bargaining without fear of retribution or different treatment by the business.


A pricing model applied to software or online applications which provide a limited but permanent use of the product indefinitely, (as opposed to a trial version which offers full access temporarily and then cuts off access at the end of this period). Customers can then pay to ‘upgrade’ to the full version (or versions at several different price points with incrementally added features).

Full-time equivalent

A term assigned to a role which has the workload of a person employed full-time (general 38 hours per week) in that position. A company looking to fill an FTE position may do so with one person, or multiple casual or part-time staff depending on the requirements of the business. The term is useful for allocating budgets or resources to be deployed in part of the business.

Functional job analysis

A method to compile detailed work role information to use in recruitment materials and enterprise agreements/work contracts.


Gag clause

A clause in an enterprise agreement or work contract which restricts the sharing or dissemination of commercially sensitive information by staff.


In a business context, this is making tasks such as training more “fun” through a game-like process. For example, rather than delivering a training seminar through a traditional lecture-style presentation, it may be done through an experiential game where employees solve problems or compete for points.

Gender pay gap

The term used to describe the traditionally higher average wages and salaries males earn over females.

General agents

People who acts as middlemen on behalf of benefits providers to sell goods/services to companies who provide them to employees as part of benefits packages. For example, a general agent for a health insurance company advertises the vendor’s services to the company.

General manager

A manager who has full responsibility for an independent unit within the workplace, be it a department, team or location. Other management staff within the unit report to the general manager for business intelligence to be aggregated.

Generation X

The term used to refer to people born between 1965-1980.

Generation Y

The term used to refer to people born between 1980-mid 1990s.

Generation Z

The term used to refer to people in the second half of the 1990s who grew up in the internet age.

Genetic-based discrimination

The collection and/or use of genetic testing information about employees or job applicants in the process of business decision-making (such as recruiting new hires).

Geographic differential

The difference in pay for identical or very similar jobs performed in different geographic areas.

Glass ceiling

Used to describe the often-invisible barriers (such as workplace ‘tradition’ or long-term culture) that prevents women and minority groups from being promoted within the company.

Global Human Resource Management

The task of managing all employees on a global scale, while maintaining a regional focus for each country in which the business operates. This involved recruiting local management to ensure regional cultural customs and consumer practices are managed without compromising the universal brand or image of the company. Also known as global human capital management.

Goals/goal setting

Aims or objectives which can be specific and measurable or can be broader to define the general course the business strives to follow. These goals may cover recruitment and hiring aspirations to have greater diversity in a team, corporate social responsibility objectives, or any other ambitions of the business. Generally, more flexible and iterative than business initiatives or benchmarking programmes.

Good faith bargaining

The concept that all parties to a negotiation (such as an enterprise agreement) enter into discussions with a genuine interest to achieving an agreement and do so by responding to the other parties in a reasonable time and give genuine consideration to terms put by the other parties. This is a requirement under the Fair Work Act 2009.


An issue with or about an employee in regards to breaches of company policy, legislation or work contract.

Gross misconduct

A serious action or behaviour that warrants an instant dismissal or termination of employment, with the right for the business to waive normal notice periods.

Group dynamics

The way people in a team work with each other, deal with disagreement and function as more than the sum of their parts.



Persistent behaviour or actions which threatens, intimidates or causes discomfort for other employees in the workplace. Australian law prevents harassment on the basis of “protected attributes” (e.g. race, sexual orientation, gender) under anti-discrimination legislation and the Fair Work Act 2009.

Hawthorne Effect

The effect that observation has on an employee – the Hawthorne effect notes that when a person knows they are being watched, they alter their behaviour.

Hierarchy of needs

Created by Abraham Maslow, this is the concept that the things humans need are incremental, and satisfaction of higher level needs is only achieved after those lower in the hierarchy are satisfied. At the base of the hierarchy is basic physical needs, such as food and shelter, up to self-actualisation at the top of the ‘pyramid’.


A country in which a subsidiary workplace is or seeks to be located.

Host-country nationals (HCNs)

Employees or representatives born and raised in a host-country.

Hosted delivery model

A mode of software provision which sees an application (such as payroll or accounting software) installed on an off-location server, delivered to the business via an internet connection. This differs from a cloud service (such as SaaS) in that the software is a ‘unique’ instance on a dedicated server – it needs to be upgraded and maintained individually from other businesses using the same program. The server owners provide IT support and maintenance.

HR audit

A formal check system of human resources processes at regular intervals, (quarterly, annually) conducted by the business.

HR compliance

The policies, workflows, reporting and recruitment practices of a company to ensure it stays in line with applicable state and federal legislation and regulation. Reporting may be on financial data (such as annual reports), EEO data, or industry-specific information.

HR generalist

Human resources employee who is able to perform multiple functions and roles within the HR department. This may include recruitment and onboarding, benefits and payroll, and training functions.

HR software

Human resources (HR) is a critical aspect of every business. Human resources deals with the organisational and administrative aspects of a business, including hiring, training, and general employee management. HR essentially deals with people management. HR officers typically assist the employees in a workplace to achieve their best by performing a series of tasks, including hiring new employees who will benefit the workplace, assessing performance, training new starters, and organising all relevant paperwork. However, many tasks involved in HR can be tedious and time-consuming. Increasingly, these kinds of menial HR tasks are being automated by intelligent software. HR software are programs designed to complete these tasks in a fraction of the time it takes us. HR software ranges from tools to recruit and onboard employees, to applications that can auto-create rosters and track time and attendance. HR software is designed to assist employees and workforces to achieve their maximum potential. It can be implemented by companies of all sizes as a means to heighten productivity and boost employee satisfaction.

HR software comes in many shapes and sizes. There’s traditional HR software – that is, on-premise HR software which needs to be installed onto various devices in the workplace. However, most effective in today’s digital landscape is cloud-based HR software. This kind of HR software requires only a login, and can then be accessed on any internet-connected laptop, PC, or mobile phone. It’s much more accessible, and generally offers more detailed features than on-premise HR software.

Roubler is the ultimate in HR software. Our intelligent technology automates the entire employee lifecycle, and will save your business mammoth amounts of time and money. Seamlessly recruit and onboard the perfect new employee, create intelligent rosters, track T&A and staff performance, and operate in compliance with modern awards. Roubler is the full workforce management solution.

Human capital

The ‘assets’ your employees bring to the business, including their expertise, qualifications and skills, that add value to the company.

Human capital management

The role of HR to manage and retain the best employees in the business by offering exceptional work conditions, exemplary culture and attractive benefits and remuneration.

Human Capital Management Software-as-a-Service (HCM SaaS)

See HRIS Definition

Human resource information system (HRIS)

Also known as HRIS Systems are Cloud-based applications (and sometimes locally installed software) facilitating all employee data in centralised point. This data includes attendance logging, business intelligence, candidate and employee personal information, workforce analytics, efficiency and performance reports and other HR-related information. As with other SaaS solutions, HCM SaaS is lower cost than hosted or on-premises solutions, is easily updated and maintained by the vendor and is delivered online.

Human resource management system (HRMS)

See Human Capital Management Software-as-a-Service.

Human resource outsourcing

An agreement between a business and a third-party organisation which moves some of the HR responsibilities and functions off-location, while retaining others. For example, a business may outsource payroll and training while maintaining in-house recruitment or disciplinary processes.


In-house solutions

A customisable software package or application, locally installed on the company IT system. Some support is offered by the vendor, but updates to the application are not automatic (as in the case with SaaS).

Incentive pay

Remuneration opportunities used to motivate employees to go above and beyond expected work outcomes.

Incidence rate

The number of lost-time injuries, sick days and workers compensation events in a specified period.

Independent contractor

A person engaged by a business to perform a particular task or service. The contractor is not an employee of the business and is paid via issuing an invoice to an accounts department, rather than being paid a wage through a business payroll or human resources department.

Indirect compensation

Extra benefits provided to an employee for work in a form other than regular remuneration. This may be health insurance, gym memberships, or training and development opportunities funded by the business.

Individual employment agreement

A work agreement only between the employer and a specific individual employee. This is as opposed to a collective enterprise agreement which covers all staff.

Industrial psychology

A field of psychology which examines the behaviour and actions of employees in the workplace context. This specifically examines how to motivate and manage a work team within the context of the needs of both the workforce and the business.

Industrial relations

The management and analysis of the relationship between employers, employees and representative groups, such as trade unions.

Injunctive relief

An order by a court preventing an act, or compelling a person to perform an act, which has been requested of the court. For example, this may see a court compel an employer to cease collecting particular data from employees without their knowledge.

Instructional design

The process of making training and development processes more attractive to employees, with a focus on understanding how people prefer to learn. This involves an understanding of not just training materials, but the people to whom they will be delivered.

Intangible rewards

Rewards or recognition that carry personal value, but little or no monetary value. This may be praise or recognition of work done by employees, or an email of positive feedback sent to the business.

International HRM

The management of employees or representatives across two or more countries.

Internet of things (IoT)

The networking of a range of physical devices, appliances, buildings or structures, and other items using web connectivity. In the workplace, this may be buildings with sensors built into lighting or air conditioning to maximise operational efficiency, or wearable technologies to monitor and improve workflows.

ISO 9000

This is a series of internationally accepted standards specifically relating to quality assurance and management. They are not industry- or process-specific and set standards for which a company should monitor quality within their regular workflows.

ISO 9001, 9004

ISO 9001 is “Quality management systems – Requirements” and 9004 is “Quality management systems – Managing for the sustained success of an organisation”. Companies which meet these standards are eligible for ISO 9000 certification by the International Organization for Standardization.


Job analysis

See functional job analysis

Job board

A job board is an a website or used to provide current job vacancies across a range of companies and industries or a company can have a business specific job board. Often run by third-party providers who provide the infrastructure for both employer and applicant to use the site to coordinate all applications.

Job classification

A means of breaking roles in a company down to specific titles, expected tasks and responsibilities and matching pay grades.

Job description

See position description.

Job evaluation

See benchmark job.

Johari window

A quadrant diagram which helps individuals understand more about themselves and others. The X-axis has the headings “Known to self” and “Not known to self”, while the Y-axis has “Known to others” and “Not known to others”. The individual and others make assessments using adjectives to help reveal things they may not know about themselves, as well as opening up dialogue to things they may not know about others.


Key performance indicators (KPIs)

Metrics that are critical to the business success, and those upon which the success of employees is judged, (such as sales per month, customers served, units manufactured, etc).


Stands for knowledge, skills and abilities. These are the proficiencies and competencies required for a particular position or role.


Labour force participation

The measurement which identifies the number of people currently employed and actively looking for work, divided by the total number of working age people within a national population. This is carefully monitored by policy-makers because of the significant effect it can have on the national economy, (such as inflation, housing prices, cost of living).

Labour market

The availability of human labour and positions to be filled within a defined area. This may be measured on a national, state or local level, depending on the purpose of the analysis.3

Leadership development

Programs within a business (either formal or informal) with the aim of developing skills and career progression of future leaders in the company.

Learning management systems (LMS)

Learning Management Systems or LMS are defined as Software and online applications which are used to deliver training and development skills for employees. These are often linked to a company intranet or HR applications to track progress and retain training records in a central location. These may be locally installed or increasingly, offered as a cloud-based option.

Learning style

The ways in which individual employees learn most effectively. Some may prefer visual-based learning, while others may learn best in collaborative role-play situations, for example.

Leave management

Employees are entitled to workplace leave, and can take it for many reasons – illness, a holiday, to take care of a sick family member, or to take care of new children. The National Employment Standards (NES) outline the minimum leave allowed for each employee. However, an award, registered agreement, or contract can entitle an employee to more leave than the NES, but no less.

As outlined by the National Employment Standards, employee leave begins to accrue from their first day of employment, even if the employee is working through a probation period. Employee leave accumulates uniquely based on award, contract, and hours worked. Casual workers aren’t entitled to paid leave, but part-time and full-time workers are entitled to different amounts of leave.

Leave also varies in type. Part-time and full-time employees are entitled to:

  • Paid annual leave: typically 4 weeks per year, or 5 weeks for shiftworkers. This time can be claimed when sick, when going on holiday, or when sitting community service (jury duty).
  • Sick leave: unpaid time can be taken off when unwell, or an employee can use a portion of their paid annual leave.
  • Carers leave: unpaid time off to take care of an unwell family member, or a portion of paid annual leave used
  • Parental leave: new parents can take 12 months unpaid leave from an employer who they’ve already worked for more than 12 months with. An additional 12 months can be requested.
  • Long service leave: this leave varies by state, but awards long serving employees with time off.

This can be confusing to get your head around as an employer, especially when you will be dealing with a range of employee contracts.

Hence, the best way to manage employee leave is to implement a HR software with integrated leave management tools. Roubler offers full leave management through our mobile app. Managers simply login to view the leave accrual of all staff members. Our intelligent software will dictate exactly how much leave employees have earnt based on their contracts and hours worked. Alternatively, managers can set unique accrual entitlements of a per hour worked or per pay run basis.

LIFO (last in, first out)

An option to decide who is made redundant when downsizing the workforce in a company. This may not always be the best option in terms of keeping the best talent.

Loyalty programs

A strategy to retain customers, which tracks sales and rewards return visits to the business. These may also be used internally in a business to identify employees who attend or participate actively in different extracurricular work activities.

Lump sum payment

A single, large payment made to an employee, rather than smaller, incremental payments. For example, an employee taking a month of annual leave may be paid the entire month of wages in one transfer, rather than weekly.


Machine learning

A type of AI where different equipment or machines are able to ‘learn’ (i.e. detect trends or patterns and adjust accordingly). Within a business, this may be used in ordering systems to manage seasonal stock control, or use attendance data to predict trends in unplanned leave.

Managed care

Capitated pricing in a healthcare context; see also capitated pricing.

Managed service provider

See contingency recruiting

Management by objective

A company specifically documents the objectives wanting to be achieved and employees determine their roles based on these stated goals.

Marketing PR

The blending of marketing and public relations, where these two traditionally separate functions operate together. This unifies all activities in these domains, often bringing them together online to improve web and social media presence. For example, a traditional press release may be re-written and published as a blog article on the company social media and website to boost stakeholder engagement and search engine optimisation.

Matrix organisation

A management structure which sees employees report to multiple managers horizontal from each other across different parts of the organisation. This often involves staff from different work sites or departments.


Transactions facilitated through the use of a mobile device.

Mean wage

The average remuneration for a worker in a particular role or industry.

Median wage

The ‘halfway’ point between the highest and lowest paid workers in a company, industry or sector.

Mediation services

A third-party provider who facilitates dispute and grievance resolution. Mediators have no legal power but are trained to encourage good faith bargaining between the two (or more) parties.


A process used to link junior employees with a mentor in a more senior position to provide coaching, training and development. These can be informal or formalised, through meetings and measured outcomes.

Merit pay

Remuneration which is linked to work output or performance. Merit pay is based on specific, achievable, measurable targets.


The generation vaguely defined as those born from the 1980s to the early 2000s.

Minimum wage

The minimum a full-time employee is allowed to be paid per annum. This is pro-rated for part-time and casual employees. The Australian Fair Work Commission reviews minimum wage amounts annually.

Mission statement

A written, often public statement that outlines a company’s objectives and professional philosophy.

Mobile recruiting

Matching potential applicants and vacant roles in a business through mobile devices.


A woman who is running a business and has children.

MOOC (massive open online course)

A training or educational course freely available online, accessed via a browser. This is useful for general training (such as training in business philosophies or missions) for companies operating across multiple sites. This is a form of self-guided learning.


This can be an incredibly opaque term, used by business coaches to optimistically point out the simple steps to boosting happiness and engagement among the workforce. In reality, boosting morale is less about isolated tasks and more about the long-term culture existing in the business. It is almost impossible to measure, and almost as hard to identify cause and effect when things go wrong. It can come down to the individual attitudes and practices of employees, or from as high up as scheduling, rostering or procedural changes. The business needs to remain cognisant of discipline and motivation and the team and have enough flexibility to make minor adjustments in policy or workflows where necessary.

Motivational theories

Concepts from psychology which identify and explain behavioural and attitudinal trends in a business. These are often used to design training materials, benefits schemes and other work incentives.


The ability for a single instance of software to simultaneously serve multiple customers. SaaS is an example of this, where multiple companies are able to access their data while the SaaS provider only has to run one instance of the program and one instance of a database storing the data. Each company is a ‘tenant’ within the software. This reduces costs for providers (and subsequently, businesses) and means changes to the code can be rolled out easily.

Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)

A famous personality test which places individuals in one of 16 personality type categories. Each is a combination of scores on sensation, intuition, thinking and feeling. The model is influenced by the theories of Carl Jung.


Natural-language processing (NLP)

A branch of artificial intelligence which uses software to process human language in the way it is “naturally” spoken by people, (i.e. understanding conversation and sentences, rather than just key words or phrases used in many call centre menus). As the intelligence improves, it can begin to formulate more intuitive and relevant answers to queries.


Discussion between two parties where each ahs their own separate interests to fulfil. The negotiation is used to allow each to find a compromise solution that is mutually beneficial.


Giving preference or undue advantage to family or friends in a recruitment or promotion situation, even if they are not the most qualified to be selected.


A method of public relations which produces content (such as social media posts or a blog article) based on current events in the news. This can be used to boost SEO when people are searching for particular terms online (to find news) and come across the business’ content.

Non-disclosure agreement

See confidentiality agreement.

Non-traditional employment

Industries where less than a quarter of the workforce is made up of either males or females. These industries may also be known as male-/female-dominated.

Non-traditional vs traditional employee benefits

Traditional benefits are those which are most commonly offered to employees, such as retirement pay-outs or the provision of health care. Non-traditional benefits are generally targeted at the personal, rather than work lives of employees, and may include childcare services, relationship counselling, or mental health care services.


Observation interview

An interview technique which involves the employer observing the applicant on-the-job rather than a traditional spoken interview. This allows the employer to assess abilities and proficiencies more accurately.


Using labour in other countries to fulfil part of the business operations to take advantage of tax breaks, cheaper wages or less regulation. This is common with operations such as call centres and manufacturing.


Onboarding, while sounding a bit clunky and jargon-y, is a useful term for manager and HR personnel. It signifies the process of bringing on new staff into the business, but in a way that doesn’t just stop at the interview. Onboarding carries new employees through the process of the offer and acceptance, induction, tasks such as payroll, tax and superannuation compliance, and other initial training. Businesses with streamlined onboarding procedures see smooth integration of new hires into the existing workforce and reduce time spent in administration. Seeing these as an aggregate rather than isolated tasks cuts down on duplication of work and ensures accuracy and compliance with company procedures.

One-way interviews

An interviewing technique which requires applicants to submit recorded answers to supplied interview questions. This can significantly save on recruitment costs, but may also make it difficult to ask follow-up questions to unclear responses or get a true sense of the applicant.

Open-book management

Giving employees access to an organisation’s finance and sales data, allowing them to better understand the impact their roles have on the business success.

Organic search results

Results returned by a search engine, such as Google, that are based on the quality of the content and popularity of the page, rather than as a result of a paid campaign. Organic results are clicked on more often than paid results, but optimising a company website for search engines requires dedicated attention, regular updating, and quality content.

Organisational culture

The beliefs, morals, mission and attitudes shared by the company and its employees. This is not a formal system – it emerges long-term and is related to the dynamic between employees, employees and managers, and the corporate governance and all staff.

Organisational development

See change programme.


A familiarisation process for new hires, which shows them the workplace, demonstrates the culture, and explains daily operations. This may also include formal and informal training administration.


A program used by a company during a downsizing or redundancy process. This includes systems and opportunities to help leaving staff transition into new roles, resume and interview practice and job search counselling.


See business process outsourcing (BPO).


Parent or Home country

The country in which the organisation’s main headquarters are located.

Parent-country nationals (PCNs)

Employees or representatives born and raised in the parent country.

Pareto chart

A bar graph which arranges data in descending order. This is often used to identify the biggest contributing factors to an issue, expenditure, or labour costs.

Part-time employee

A person employed by a business under a contract that requires them to work less than full-time hours, (generally measured as 38 hours per week). Part-time workers get the majority of benefits and conditions of full-time staff, including paid leave, calculated pro rata on the basis of their FTE calculation.

Pay-per-click (PPC)

The payment structure of paid web search results, which sees advertising companies pay the advertiser (such as Google) for every click generated from an advertisement. This produces more value for an advertiser than pay-per-impression models. Prices are usually base don CPM (clicks per thousand displays).


The payment structure of paid web search results where advertisers are charged for every time their ad is delivered on a site, (but not necessarily clicked on). Depending on the ad-serving algorithm, this method may not produce quality results or be delivered to people who will not ever be customers. This is usually cheaper than PPC advertising.

Payroll processing

The aggregation of time and attendance data for a pay period (week, fortnight, month) to process wage and salary payments to employees. This also involves calculations of tax payable, superannuation, higher education debts, allowances and any other payments.

Payroll software

Software which automates the processing of wages and other payments to employees. Often linked to time and attendance systems, payroll software saves significant time in calculating and paying out monies to staff. It takes into account tax payments, pre-tax deductions, superannuation, bonuses, and other sundry payments. Can easily generate wage and salary reports for management.

Payroll software service

Payroll refers to the regular payment of employee wages. However, there is much more detailed nuances to payroll. It requires handling industrial relation and statutory compliance, recordkeeping, and data security, as well as the completion of employee remuneration. Australia has a very complex regulatory environment which sees each industry have a unique set of payroll requirements. There are 122 unique modern awards that detail how employees across various field should be paid. Payroll software and services are designed to take the hassle out of handling these various tasks.

However, choosing the best payroll system or service for your business is crucial to ensuring your business is running at its optimal efficiency and profitability. Some of the things to look out for when choosing the best payroll software or service for your business are:

Highly experienced payroll officers: your payroll accuracy is crucial to the wellbeing of your business, so ensure that the outsourced payroll officers you’re employing are experienced in their field.

Industry-based knowledge and solutions: awards and best practice vary via industry, so make sure the payroll service you select specialises in your industry of operation.

Intelligent, self-service technology: payroll solutions should simplify your workload, so keep an eye out for paperless, cloud-based systems with employee self-service. These will massively streamline your administrative workload.

An easily contactable, on-shore team: it’s normal to have questions about your payroll, so it’s best that the payroll service you choose is actually easily contactable.

Full transparency: you should be allowed to view the details of every pay run, so that you can keep your service accountable as well as on top of employee wage costs. Flexible reporting options are crucial too.

Complete modern award compliance: it’s an absolute must that your payroll software or service be up-to-date with modern award compliance, otherwise you risk massive fines, backpay, and negative media attention.

Ability for third party software integration: make sure that your new software is compatible with any others that you need to run, such as point-of-sale.

All-in-one: the most effective payroll software does more than just payroll! All-in-one or end-to-end HR software services more than just pay, and can feature recruitment and onboarding tools, scheduling and time and attendance tracking, and even performance management.

Roubler offers a completely integrated payroll system as part of its all-in-one software. Roubler has over 15 years’ experience managing payroll in Australia. Our payroll service is secure, accurate, on-time and always complaint with modern award regulations

For more on choosing the right payroll service or software, read our detailed guide here.

Peer appraisal

Employees evaluate the work performance of their equals and deliver feedback, as opposed to coming from management.


There are a multitude of terms used to describe the human labour used in businesses. Staff, workers and team can be used in most contexts but can sound cold and disconnected from the key contributions they make individually and as a group for the business. Personnel, human capital, human resources and talent often sound “buzzword-y” and bedded in corporate-speak. Using ‘people’ removes divides between management and non-management. Whatever their capacity in the workplace, it is the people who make the business operate.

Performance appraisal

The assessment of an employee’s performance and work outcomes. Undertaken by management, usually in consultation with the employee.

Performance management

Usually occurs after a negative performance appraisal or other event, such as a warning. An individual employee is closely monitored by management, in terms of behaviour or work output to ensure corrective action is being performed.

Performance management software

It’s more important than ever to ensure that all of your staff are giving their best performance to your business. Industries are becoming increasingly competitive as global companies enter the market. That’s where performance management software can help your business. Performance management software refers to applications or programs that allow managers to track and optimise the efficiency of staff members, both individually and as a whole workforce. When implemented effectively, this kind of software contributes to boosting a company’s profitability.

Annual performance reviews are typically dreaded by managers and employees alike. Research has shown that when a performance review deadline is drawing near, employees will adjust their behaviour accordingly. Hence, it is harder as a manager to successfully gage their typical work habits. When it comes time for the review, managers are forced to rehash a whole year’s performance in a half an hour period. It’s common for employees to put their guard up during a performance assessment, and become less likely to take feedback on board. Performance management software offers a way around this. Instead of having to discuss a year’s work in one gruelling session, performance management software allows managers to track each employee’s achievements at all times. This way, feedback can be administered when it’s needed as opposed to at a scheduled time. It also allows managers to have easy access to tangible data and metric regarding performance. Feedback is much easier to take on board as an employee when it’s easy to see exactly where the feedback is coming from.

Roubler lets you track, analyse and evaluate how your workforce is performing in real time. Our tool allows you to rank your employee’s present and past performance, and identifies your current top performers. Easily discover who isn’t working to their maximum potential so you can address the issue ASAP and have your workforce back to running at 100%.

Performance planning

A company-wide strategy which outlines the KPIs wanting to be achieved by the business, as well as any other goals or missions. This then guides goals and tasks for individual employees and departments.

Performance review

Managing and monitoring employee performance should be done proactively, rather than simply in response to incidents or poor work output. Having regular reviews gives both employees and managers to discuss workload, output, issues and concerns. It also means giving employees just-in-time feedback so only minor adjustments have to be made to work practices. Some companies have regular, formalised performance reviews (monthly, quarterly, annually) with bonuses or other conditions attached to the outcome. Other businesses may prefer to use a less formal approach, and use the process as a way of stimulating open communication with staff.

Plan sponsor

An organisation which takes on and maintains benefit programs for employees, including administration and renegotiation with third-party providers. This may be an employer but can also be trade unions or other professional industry organisations.

Platform economy

Economic activity generated by the use of digital platforms or technologies. Examples include cloud-based SaaS services like Google Docs or Dropbox, or platforms on which organisations can build, such as WordPress.


A role within the business, allocated a particular set of tasks or accountabilities. A position is usually defined by a full-time equivalent number, which is most useful for budget and resource allocation planning, (e.g. a position requiring someone to work half-days may be planned and advertised as 0.5 FTE).

Position description

Often included in an employment contract or recruitment materials, this outlines the required competencies, experience and qualifications of an applicant or employee for a role. It may also encourage people from particular groups (such as Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander people) to apply for the position, in line with EEO principles or goals of the business.

Position review

An assessment by the business of the tasks and responsibilities (or even the necessity for the existence) of a particular role within the company.

Positive Culture and respectful workplace survey

A survey and interview-based assessment to provide information on precursors, detractors and promoters of a positive workplace culture. A platform to identify and eliminate incidences of workplace bullying disrespect.

Predictive analytics

The use of HRIS systems or other business intelligence applications to access and analyse materials such as job applications, time and attendance data or sales data. This is done with the intention of predicting future outcomes.


A period at the start of an employee’s tenure (usually 3-6 months) which allows the business to assess their on-the-job skills and performance. If the employee does not meet requirements, the business can usually end the employment relationship without the employee quitting or having to be formally terminated.

Professional employer organisation (PEO)

An organisation providing co-employment services; see also co-employment.

Protected concerted activity

The protection for workers who are exercising rights under freedom of association laws, such as join unions and take part in certain industrial action.


Quality management

Processes within a company to ensure a consistent and high standard of output, (particularly in manufacturing). This follows the product from materials sourcing, through manufacturing and delivery, as well as after-sales monitoring.

Quantified self

The collection of personal data on a wide range of daily habits, such as exercise, food intake, physiological signs such as heart rate or blood pressure, and mental and physical performance.


Random testing

Drug and alcohol tests conducted by an employer at regular intervals or upon onboarding, as per local legislation and company policy.


Advertising for and interviewing applicants for a vacant role in a company.

Recruitment process outsourcing (RPO)

A form of business process outsourcing which moves responsibility for finding and interviewing job applicants to a third-party provider.


Occurs where a business no longer has use, or can no longer sustain, a particular position within the organisation. This is not a sacking/termination, nor a resignation. Often businesses may offer redundancy packages, which are financial incentives to staff to voluntarily leave the business, which may allow employees to self-select who leaves, rather than being pushed into a forced redundancy. The business cannot re-fill the same position within the business without a significant change, (such as increased turnover which justifies filling the position).

Remote working

Modern technologies have made working outside of the office a much easier reality. Work teams distributed around the country (or around the world) give the business a lot of flexibility in finding the best new hires. Recruitment efforts are not just related to one city. Depending on the type of work being done, some businesses may not even have a “home base”. Modern all-in-one digital HR systems allow for simple attendance logging, payroll processing and business intelligence data to be collected even from scattered teams.

Replacement charts

A tool used in leadership succession planning, which shows current and potential future vacancies in particular roles. This helps the business visually identify gaps or future gaps in the workforce. This helps ensure a constant supply of labour at all levels.

Reporting suite

A reporting suite refers to the reporting tool offered by HR and payroll software. Each business requires different records and reports to be generated from their payroll and general employee management. A reporting suite can create tailored reports on, for example, monthly wages, annual income, performance across a fortnight, or employee lateness. Reporting suites are generally an integrated feature of all reliable HR and payroll software. The best software will offer tailored reporting options that reflect your business’s needs.

Keeping accurate and derailed records is essential, and be able to quickly generate a report on whatever you need is crucial. Reporting suites generally offer the below features:

  • Performance report: A report which details the performance of still in real time, or over a certain period. These kinds of reports are vital resources for managers who are trying to grow a business, and need to see which employees are working efficiently and productively, and which aren’t.
  • Income report: A report that details your revenue over a specific period. Many HR software are compatible with POS software or other financial trackers. As a result, they will be able to generate reports reflecting incoming funds for the day, week, month or year.
  • Payroll report: This report identifies your payroll activity for a certain period. It will identify your wage costings, and can even compare them to your income levels.
  • Job ad report: This report provides detailed feedback on applicants to your job ad. An excellent reporting suite will even be able to show you if an applicant is a good match for your workplace.

A reporting suite comes as an integrated feature of Roubler’s workforce management software. Roubler understands that each business will need unique reporting arrangements. That’s why we offer a diverse range of tailored real time, flexible reporting options. Operate your business with complete visibility, and always be able to track where funds and resources are going.

Reputation management

A joint role of HR, marketing and public relations to monitor and act upon shifts in external and internal attitudes about a business, especially with relation to public perception, crisis communication and internal morale.

Request for proposal (RFP)

A call from an organisation for a quote on goods or services to be supplied by another business. This may be put to open tender where a range of suppliers can bid for the supply contract.


The voluntary cessation of employment by an employee.

Restrictive covenant

A clause inserted into an enterprise agreement or individual contract which prevents an employee working for another employer in the same industry or geographic region for a given period after they leave a company.

Retention strategy

See employee retention.


The cessation of employment as a result of a redundancy.

Return on investment (ROI)

The profit-to-expenditure ratio on a good or service produced and delivered. Also known as yield or rate of return.

Reverse mentoring

A mentoring program where more junior staff mentor senior staff on new systems or processes. This may see younger staff mentoring older staff in emerging tech trends or social media use.

Right to manage

The authority given to managers within a business to make decisions and take actions without having to obtain higher approval. This may be given to senior managers in a regional division of a multinational corporation, for example.

Risk management

Strategies which insulate the business from potential risks, (such as public liability insurance or restricting staff from speaking to media, etc.).

Rotational training

A training strategy that moves employees (often new hires) through all departments or functions of the business before placing them in their permanent role. This helps gain a holistic perspective of the business operations and may identify other roles in which the employee may perform well.

RSS (Real Simple Syndication)

A standardised web feed which allows users to “subscribe” to the feed (such as a blog) through a range of RSS readers. RSS readers are web-based, and often available as an installable plugin to web browsers. The XML file format ensure the feed is universally accessible from different reader platforms.



The ability for a business (or business process) to expand and continue to function normally. Usually, scalability where the cost-per-unit or cost per process drops as output increases is desirable.

Scheduled time-off (planned leave)

Hours absent from work as a result of leave organised and planned in advance in consultation with the employer, (such as long service or annual leave). This can also include non-regular planned leave, such as jury duty, maternity leave or days in lieu.

Search engine optimisation (SEO)

The strategy of improving a company website to push it higher up search results in search engines, such as Google. This often involves researching and using key words and terms relevant to the business in blog posts and articles on the site. Many search engines reward well-written, quality content and regularly updated sites.

Self-funded insurance plan / self-insured plan

An insurance plan which sees the company have an in-house fund for insurance payouts, rather than paying premiums to an external vendor. This can reduce costs, but also increases risk to solvency in the event of large payouts.

Self-service HR

Software which gives employees the ability to self-manage and update parts of their HR record held by the business. This can include bank account or superannuation information, personal details or emergency contacts, or manage benefits or entitlements. This can reduce administration costs and allow the business to invest more resources into the profit-making sectors of the company. Also known as employee self-service.

Sensitivity training

A program run by the business (often operated by an external provider) to make employees more aware of their own internalised biases and judgements about different demographic groups.

Sex discrimination

The unfair treatment of an employee on the basis of gender.

Sexual harassment

Continued and repeated unwelcome sexual advances or conduct of a sexual nature in the workplace. The Sex Discrimination Act makes it unlawful to sexually harass another person in education, employment, or the provision of goods/services (meaning it extends to treatment of business customers, not just other employees).

Short-term disability

An injury or illness not expected to be permanent. Health insurance plans and some businesses may have coverage to pay full or part wages while the employee is off work.

SHRM (Society for Human Resource Management)

The global organisation dedicated to human resource management and providing information to managers and professionals in the field.

Situational leadership

A management style which sees managers adapt the way they behave and act towards staff based on the situation. Successful managers are able to ‘read the room’ and change their style, rather than treating everyone from higher level managers to entry-level staff exactly the same.

Six Sigma

A set of guidelines for process improvement developed in the 1980s. It uses data to identify the root cause of manufacturing defects or anomalies and reduce this in the future by limiting the possibility of variability in outputs.


The ability to perform a specific, required activity in the workplace.

Skills gap

The net difference between the competencies an employee or applicant has, and those that are required to successfully fill the job requirements.

Social collaboration

Workflows that encourage interaction and cooperation among employees. This is particularly important where employees are separated by department or across different geographic sites.

Social currency

A metric which defines the ‘value’ of the business, in terms of power or influence, in an online context such as social media. This value is defined by reach, impact, activity, and engagement with the public.

Social HR

The use of social networking by HR departments to create opportunities or offer services to employees, (such as using Facebook to coordinate staff events).

Social marketing workflows

A list of social media engagement actions determined by the business which aide in creating consistency and maintaining company image on social media.

Social media

Digital platforms which enable people to form and participate in online communities to share content, opinions, ideas and other digital media.

Social media background screening

This involves HR staff examining the public social media profiles of staff or job applicants to ensure they align with company values and standards. This is a grey area legally and morally, particular in relation to anti-discrimination legislation.

Social networking

The use of social media to participate in online communities.

Social recruitment

The use of social media to attract and recruit job applicants, such as LinkedIn. This method can be sued to gather general information about an employee from their public profile on the platform.

Software as a service (SaaS)

Software which is often delivered via a web browser, rather than solely as an installable application and is provided as a subscription (rather than the ‘perpetual licensing’ model which meant paying for new versions of software as it developed). Upgrades are incremental and immediately installed with little downtime or transition to new interfaces. This model requires little computer resources and is more easily managed than locally installed software.


Sourcing refers to how the company finds and recruits people. It is cleaner than “headhunting” or “poaching”, which both sound aggressive and treat employees as a commodity to be traded between business elites. Sourcing staff implies finding a good match between the needs of the business and the people working within it. It recognises the contributions both parties make to the other and to the success of the business.

SPHR (Senior professional in human resources)

The most senior human resources certification for those who have developed themselves as experts in the HR field.


The process of recruiting, onboarding and managing employees.

Strategic HRM

The method of aligning company strategy and human resource management to ensure goals are being met.

Strategic planning

Development of short, medium and long-term goals for the company in order to assign appropriate resources and ensure adequate staffing and leadership development.

Subscription solutions

See Software as a Service (SaaS).

Succession planning

Mapping out the potential movement of current staff into leadership roles into the future to prevent skills gaps and inadequate management skills. This process creates a line of succession to identify which employees are inline to move upwards in the business.

Summary dismissal

The termination of an employee with no notice period given, most broadly used as a disciplinary action to serious misconduct in the workplace, (e.g. theft, sexual harassment).


An employee who has seniority over other staff, with the authority to assign work tasks, discipline staff under their purview, interview applicants, deal with complaints and grievances, and generally make independent decisions about operations within the scope of their role in line with the broader business principles.


A temporary period of non-attendance by the employee, potentially as a result of investigation into allegations of misconduct or other poor performance or behaviour.

System of record

A data management software system which is the authoritative source of data. Most companies have multiple sources of pertinent data – sales records, loyalty program data, marketing intelligence. The system of record becomes a single source of combined, up-to-date data which is regularly updated and maintained.

Systemic discrimination

Sometimes called institutionalised discrimination, these are businesses practices that build patterns of discrimination or disadvantage for particular groups into the normal operations of the business. This is often not necessarily intentional. For example, a business may only recruit from a particular university which has a high proportion of students from wealthy families. This disadvantages or discourages potential applicants from low socioeconomic backgrounds.


Talent management

See human capital management.

Talent pooling

A database or list of potential candidates and their details who have expressed interest in working within the business. This can simplify recruitment procedures, where previous unsuccessful applicants can be approached first, without having to place job ads or cast a wide net.

Tangible rewards

Physical rewards or bonuses, such as gift cards or food hampers, (as opposed to intangible rewards such as praise).

Team building

A business aim to create a sense of interdependence and trust within a workforce, where employees feel their work is valued and value the work others contribute to their role. This can be introduced as a training program, but is heavily reliant on morale and the culture of the business to foster a long-term, sustained sense of team.

Temporary employee

An employee with a limited period of tenure within the business. They may be hired on a full- or part-time, or casual basis, generally with the same conditions as permanent employees. An end-date is placed on the period of service.

Third–country nationals (TCNs)

Employees or representatives born and raised in a country other than the parent or a host country.

Time and attendance software

For shift-based workplaces, time and attendance software is crucial to ensure that employees are remunerated correctly, award compliance is achieved, and time theft is avoided. Time and attendance software refers to programs which allow employees to track the hours worked during each shift. Intelligent time and attendance software will have the integrated ability to seamlessly calculate overtime and complex arrangements like split shifts, or higher duties, superannuation, leave, and more. Other features of new T&A software include GPS monitoring, government regulation updates, scheduling tools, and creation of detailed labour data.

When selecting the best time and attendance software for your business, there are a few things that you should keep an eye out for:

Ease: an excellent T&A software will be easy to navigate and almost intuitive for employees to adopt.

Flexibility: the best software will be accessible over several interfaces, including mobile and PC.

Accuracy: the system you chose will need an inbuilt time clock that will only allow employees to claim scheduled hours worked – not extra.

Integration: your chosen software should be compatible with other systems you have in place.

All-in-one: the very best T&A on the market today will offer the option of end-to-end workforce management.

Roubler’s time and attendance software features a live feed of attendance with an inbuilt time clock to instantly record clock in/out data. This means no more paying for hours that were rostered but not actually worked. All time and attendance data is automatically transferred to Roubler’s in-built payroll, ensuring ease and accuracy of pay every time.

Roubler automatically integrates any Fair Work Australia award updates free of charge, freeing you from the worry of staying up-to-date on legislative changes, so you can focus on managing your workforce.

For more on selecting the best time and attendance software for your business, read our guide here.

Total compensation

The complete package offered to employees, which is made up of total remuneration plus any other non-financial benefits or incentives offered to employees.

Total quality management

A business philosophy that stresses all employees must be committed to achieving the highest possible standards for the business. This also covers quality control processes, customer engagement, strategic planning, dedicated leadership and iterative product design.

Total remuneration

The aggregate of base pay and incentive-based pay, as well as other financial benefits offered to employees, which can include additional superannuation contributions or bonuses.


Upskilling, learning opportunities, asynchronous learning, e-learning – all have become corporate jargon for what is simple training for employees. At its most basic, training is facilitating the development of both soft skills (such as communication, stress management, and listening) and hard skills (i.e. technical skills needed for the job). A focus on training means the business is always working towards growing the next generation of leaders and mentors in the business.

Training needs analysis

An assessment of what skills and development training needs to be offered to employees by identifying skills gaps or poor performance in the business. This also sets out expected outcomes on completion of training, both for employees and for the business output.

Transformational leadership

A management strategy that sees managers work with employees to identify areas where changes can be made, with a vision to inspire innovation and strong morale.

Transitional employment

See Early Return to Work program (also, graduated return to work)


See attrition.


Unconscious bias

Discriminatory decisions made by a person without them realising they are doing it, as a result of internalised judgements about particular people or demographics. This can influence recruitment decisions in a negative way.


An organisation which agrees to compensate a business or person for certain losses. An insurance company is an example of an underwriter and the business pays premiums to mitigate the impact of losses caused by unforeseen circumstances.


The International Labour Organisation sets out the criteria of an unemployed person to be someone who is (1) without work; (2) currently available for work (e.g. of working age, not retired), and (3) deliberately seeking work. The Australian Bureau of Statistics performs a monthly Labour Force Survey to monitor unemployment trends in Australia.

Unexpected time off (unplanned leave)

Unexpected or unplanned absence from work, including sick leave or grievance leave. There may be requirement for employees to provide documentation to the business when this leave is taken, (such as a medical certificate), in order to be paid for the leave.

Unfair dismissal

The business ceases the employment of an employee on grounds that are unfair or without legitimate reason.

Unfair selection

Forced redundancies of particular staff out of a larger team without appropriate processes of selection or fairness. This may be grounds for an unfair dismissal claim, (e.g. forced redundancies of the oldest members of the workforce despite excellent work output).


An organisation which coordinates and collectivises workers for the purposes of contract and enterprise agreement negotiations, as a well as acts as a representative in industrial relations grievances.


Video interview

A job interview conducted with an applicant via video conferencing software, such as Skype or Zoom, rather than in-person.

Viral marketing

An advertising technique that distributes word of a product or brand via highly engaging, shareable content that spreads quickly online. This can rapidly increase a brand’s visibility, but it is very difficult to manufacture viral content. It is also important to identify any parts of the campaign that could be taken out of context to hijack the messaging.

Virtual HR

See self-service HR.

Voluntary benefits

Benefits paid out of pre-tax income by the employee, deducted during the payroll process. This can be done to reduce tax burdens and may pay for services like health insurance or leased vehicles.


Flexibility built into the workplace where the company supports employees volunteering time. This may include pro bono work related to the core functions of the business, or may just be sponsorship of an employee to do general volunteering in the community.


Wage drift

This is the gap between the basic level of pay for all workers in a role and the remuneration actually given to an employee. This drift may occur because of overtime or bonuses, or because of unconscious bias given to workers of certain ages or gender.

Wellness program

Benefits programs offered to employees which are aimed at providing a holistic, healthy living plan. This may be through health insurance or gym plans, or even through providing regular healthy lunches or snacks in the workplace.


An employee who reveals internal activities which contravene laws, regulations or company policy. Whistle-blowers have certain protections (and restrictions) under the Corporations Act 2001.

Work-life balance

The balance needed in life between time spent on the job and time spent seeking fulfilment outside the workplace. Achieving this balance can greatly improve both quality of life and work efficiency.

Work-life employee benefits

The non-traditional benefits offered to employees to help achieve fulfilment in the work-life balance; see also non-traditional benefits, work-life balance.

Workers compensation

A type of compulsory insurance governed by the Safe Work Act 2008 which pays employee wages and additional payments for medical or rehabilitation services where a worker is injured or contracts an illness in the line of work (due to work-related causes).


The aggregate of engaged or occupied FTE positions within a business; see also FTE

Workforce analysis

This strategic practice involves an assessment of the current state of the engaged workforce in an organisation. This may include analysing proportions of employees from different demographics, the number of positions in different areas of the company, or any other business intelligence data related to staff that may guide decision-making or strategy.

Workforce management (WFM)

Deliberate structuring of business resources and employees to match “right team, right time, right task”. The business optimises rostering, time and attendance, as well as pairing specific skill sets with specific tasks to reduce staffing levels without reducing output or productivity.

Workforce management software

No workplace operates efficiently without management. Workforce management refers to the process of maximising performance levels and capabilities within a business or organisation. This includes all actions required to preserve an efficient workplace. The elements involved in workforce management include:

  • HR and administration
  • employee management
  • performance tracking
  • data collecting
  • hiring
  • budgeting
  • rostering
  • analytics
  • payroll
  • engaging staff in the workplace

As you can see, the list of tasks involved in ‘workplace management’ is very long. The core goal of all these tasks in optimisation – getting the very best out of all employees, and hence the whole workforce. This is a crucial goal. Because workforce management incorporates such a wide variery of tasks, and because it is so important to business success, software has been developed over the years to assist in such tasks. Hence, workforce management software refers to programs and applications that aid the running of workplaces in such tasks and performance tracking, budgeting, and so on. When implemented successfully, workforce management software drastically streamlines the everyday functioning of businesses. There is a large range of workforce management software on the market, each with varying features. The most effective options boast end-to-end features, meaning that they streamline the entire employee lifecycle. End-to-end workforce management software should optimise your workplace by:

  • recruiting and assessing new employees
  • assisting with the onboarding process of said new employees
  • create intelligent rosters to boost efficiency and keep within wage forecasts
  • feature an inbuilt time and attendance tracker
  • offer performance analysis tools
  • feature fully managed payroll solutions

Roubler is a workforce management software that caters for the entire employee lifecycle, as listed above. It automates everything from recruiting, onboarding, rostering, T&A, and payroll in order to streamline the administration of the workforce.

Workforce planning

Assessing the current and future needs of the business and ensuring there is a sufficient supply of skilled labour and leadership talent; see also succession planning.

Working capital management

Management and monitoring of short-term finances to ensure adequate liquidity. This ensures the business can meet foreseeable operational costs and accurately monitor profit centres.

Wrongful dismissal / wrongful termination

The termination of an employee against the terms of an enterprise agreement, workplace law, or contract.


XML and HR-XML (Extensible markup language)

A computer language which is designed to be read by a wide range of technologies as well as by humans. The HR-XML Consortium works to simplify and universalise the use of XML in HR systems without having to reinterpret or re-enter large data sets.

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